Smart cities add "intelligence" and "quality" to the lives of residents-Industry Information
Until recently, city leaders also believed that intelligent technology was primarily a tool for improving efficiency behind the scenes. Today, technology is more directly integrated into the lives of residents. Smartphones have become the key to cities, delivering instant information about transportation, transportation, medical services, security alerts and community news to millions of people.
After 10 years of trial and error, municipal leaders realized that smart city strategy should be people-oriented. "Intelligence" is more than just installing digital interfaces in traditional infrastructure or streamlining urban operations. It also involves the purposeful use of technology and data to make better decisions and provide better quality of life.
The quality of life includes many aspects, from the breathing air of residents to the sense of safety when they are walking on the street. The McKinsey Global Institute's latest report, "the smart city: a more livable future digital solution" (PDF-6MB), analyzes how dozens of digital applications address these practical and public concerns. The report found that cities can use smart technologies to raise key quality of life indicators by 10% to 30%, which include saving lives, reducing crime, shortening commute time, reducing health burdens, and avoiding carbon emissions.
1.What does the building of an intelligent city depend on?
2.Smart city technology has great and unrealized potential in improving the quality of urban life.
3.Looking at the current deployment of 50 cities around the world, even the most advanced cities still have a long way to go.
4.Smart cities have changed the economics of infrastructure and created opportunities for partnership and private sector participation.
What does the building of an intelligent city depend on?
Smart cities use data and digital technology to make better decisions and improve the quality of life. More comprehensive and real-time data allows the government to observe the development of the situation, understand the changes in the demand pattern, and respond to a faster, lower cost solution.
The construction of intelligent city relies mainly on three levels of cooperation (Fig. 1). The first is technology, including a large number of smart phones and sensors connected through high-speed communication networks. The second layer is made up of specific applications. Converting raw data into the right tools for alerts, insights, and operations requires the involvement of technology providers and application developers. The third layer is the use of the city, the company and the public. Many applications are successful only when they are widely adopted and involve behavioral changes. They encourage people to use transportation, change routes, reduce the use of energy and water at non working hours, and do this at different times of the day and reduce the pressure of the medical system through preventive self-care.
Smart city technology has great and unrealized potential in improving the quality of urban life.
The McKinsey Global Institute has assessed how intelligent urban applications affect the dimensions of different quality of life: safety, time and convenience, health, environmental quality, social contact and citizen participation, work and living costs. The results of extensive research reflect the fact that applications vary in different cities, due to the existing infrastructure systems and baseline starting points.
Applications can help cities fight crime and improve other public safety issues.
The maximum effect of deploying a range of applications could be an 8-10% reduction in mortality (from homicide, road traffic, and fire). In a high crime city with a population of 5 million, this means that up to 300 lives can be saved each year. Cases of attacks, robberies, burglary and car theft can be reduced by 30% to 40%. Most importantly, it can bring great benefits to residents' freedom of movement and harmony in life.
Technology does not solve crime quickly, but institutions can use data to deploy scarce resources and personnel more effectively. For example, the real time crime map uses statistical analysis to highlight the pattern, while the prediction of police is a step ahead of the prediction of the crime and stifling it in the "cradle". When the incident occurs, gun detection, intelligent surveillance and family safety systems and other applications can speed up the law enforcement response. However, data driven policing must be deployed in order to protect civil liberties and avoid convictions of specific communities or population groups. Data-driven police must be deployed to protect civil liberties and avoid criminalizing specific communities or population groups.
When life is at stake, we must race against time. This makes it important for the first responder to arrive at the emergency site. Intelligent system can optimize call center and field operation, and preemptive traffic signal provides a barrier-free access for emergency vehicles. These types of applications can reduce emergency response time by 20% to 35%. For a city with a response time of only eight minutes, it can still be reduced by almost two minutes. A city with an average response time of 50 minutes may be reduced by more than 17 minutes.
Smart city technology can make daily commuting faster and less annoying.
Tens of millions of urban residents around the world, either in traffic jams or on crowded buses and trains, begin and end their work every day. Improving daily commuting is critical to quality of life.
By 2025, cities that deploy smart mobile applications are likely to reduce commuting time by an average of 15% to 20%, and some may even enjoy greater cuts. The potential relevance of each application is very flexible, depending on the density of each city, existing transport infrastructure, and commuting patterns. In a densely populated city, intelligent technology can save commuters 15 minutes a day. In a developing city where commuting is relatively inconvenient, the improvement time may be 20 to 30 minutes per day.
Generally speaking, cities with dense and convenient transportation systems can benefit passengers from simplified experience applications. Using digital identifiers or mobile applications to provide real-time information about delays allows passengers to adjust their routes in a timely manner. Installation of Internet of Things sensors on existing physical infrastructure can help train crews solve problems before failures and delays occur.
The application of road congestion mitigation is more effective in private driving or in the cities where buses are the main mode of transportation. In developing countries, where most people travel by bus, intelligent synchronization of traffic signals could reduce average commuting time by more than 5%. Real time navigation can remind drivers of delays and help them choose the fastest route. Smart parking applications provide them with directly available parking space information, thereby reducing the time spent searching for parking spaces around city blocks.
Cities can be a catalyst for improving health
Although some platforms have not been fully utilized to solve health problems, the absolute density of cities has made them the key. We recognize that technology is widely used in health care and is developing with the development of the times, so we only analyze the digital applications that provide space for the city. We quantify their potential impact on disability adjusted life years (DALYs), which is a major indicator of the global burden of disease by the WHO (World Health Organization), which not only reflects the years of loss of life because of premature death, but also reflects the loss of life due to disability or incapacity. The number of years of birth and healthy life. If the city deploys the application (including our analysis) to the fullest effect, we will see a 8% to 15% decline in the disability adjustment life year.
In developed countries, applications that help prevent, treat, and monitor chronic diseases, such as diabetes or cardiovascular disease, may have the greatest impact. The remote patient monitoring system may reduce the health burden of high-income cities by more than 4%. These systems use digital devices for vital signs detection and then safely transmit them to a doctor in another place for evaluation. These data can remind patients and doctors to avoid complications and hospitalization when early intervention is needed.
Cities can use data and analysis to identify populations with higher risk characteristics and more precise intervention targets. The so-called mobile medical (mHealth) interventions can send out information about vaccinations, health facilities, safe sex, and adherence to antiretroviral treatments. In the low income cities with high infant mortality, the data based intervention on maternal and child health can be reduced by more than 5% years. If infectious disease surveillance systems were used in developing cities, a further 5% reduction would be possible if interventions were made before a rapidly spreading epidemic. Telemedicine, which provides clinical consultation through video conferencing, can also save lives in low-income cities where doctors are in short supply.
Smart cities can provide cleaner and more sustainable environments.
With the growth of urbanization, industrialization and consumption, the pressure of the environment has increased exponentially. Applications such as building automation systems, floating price and some mobility applications can reduce emissions by 10% to 15%.
Water consumption tracking combined with advanced digital feedback information can drive people to save water. In cities with high residential water consumption, water consumption will be reduced by 15%. In many parts of developing countries, the biggest waste of water resources is pipeline leakage. Deploying sensors and analyzers can reduce the loss by 25%. A digital tracking application like "who pays who pays" can reduce the number of solid waste per person by 10% to 20%. Overall, urban residents can save 25 to 80 litres of water per person per day and 30 to 130 kilograms of non-recyclable solid waste per year.
Air quality sensors do not automatically address the causes of pollution, but they can identify sources of pollution and provide a basis for further action. In less than a year, Beijing has reduced deadly air pollutants by about 20% by closely tracking pollution sources and controlling traffic and buildings accordingly. Through smart phone applications inform the public of real-time air quality information, individuals can take protective measures. According to the current level of pollution, this can reduce the negative health effects from 3% to 15%.
Smart city can create a new digital city public space and enhance social connections.
It is difficult to quantify the community, but the McKinsey Global Institute has investigated urban residents, determining digital channels to communicate with local officials, and whether the digital platforms (such as Meetup and Nextdoor) that promote real world interaction (such as Meetup and Nextdoor) will have an impact. Our analysis shows that using these types of applications can double the proportion of residents interacting with the local community, and almost three times as much as those who interact with the local government.
Establishing two-way communication channels between public institutions and local institutions can make the city government more responsive. Many urban organizations have been active in social networking, and others have developed their civic interaction applications. In addition to disseminating information, these channels also provide a channel for residents to focus on reports, collect data or participate in planning issues. Paris has implemented a participatory budget, inviting anyone to publish his views on the project, and then vote online to decide which projects are worth supporting.
Building an intelligent city is not a strategy for creating opportunities for employment, but intelligent solutions can make the local labor market more efficient and reduce the cost of living a little.
Many local officials wonder whether building a smart city will bring high-paying scientific and technological work or accelerate the wave of automation. Our analysis found a slight positive impact on formal employment. Intelligent technology will directly reduce a number of jobs (such as the administrative and on-site jobs of the municipal government), and create other jobs (such as maintenance, driving, and temporary installation). E-Career Centers can create more effective recruitment mechanisms to attract more unemployed and inactive people into the workplace, with moderate positive impact. Data driven formal education and online retraining programs can enhance skills reserve in a city. The digitalization of government functions, such as commercial license, application and tax declaration, can make local enterprises free from the bondage of red tape, thus forming a more entrepreneurial business environment.
There are serious housing shortages in many of the most dynamic and desirable cities in the world, with rents and housing prices soaring. The expansion of housing supplies can reduce these costs. In many places, bureaucracy has hampered land acquisition, environmental research, design approval and licensing. Digitalization of these processes can eliminate risks and delays and encourage more construction. In addition, most cities have a large number of idle land, which can be used to build housing. Creating open source cadastral databases can help identify development blocks.
Smart applications can save money in other areas, such as encouraging more efficient use of infrastructure and healthcare systems. Products such as home security systems, personal reminders, and wearing styles all involve consumer purchases, but they provide value that many people are willing to pay for. Mobile applications also offer new value, although networking may encourage people to use cars more often than ever before. However, Internet dating and other sharing applications may cause some people to abandon their private cars. The McKinsey Global Institute estimates that ordinary people can save up to 3% of their annual expenditure on travel.
Looking at the current progress in 50 cities around the world, even the most advanced cities still have a long way to go.
The McKinsey Global Institute took a snapshot of 50 cities around the world, not to boast of the world's smartest cities, but to show the deployment of smart cities around the world. This includes assessing the technical basis of each city, the promotion of current applications and the adoption of the public.
Our view of the technological base of each city focuses on the range of sensors and devices, the quality of communication networks, and the existing open data portals. The most advanced of them are Amsterdam, New York, Seoul, Singapore and Stockholm, but even these leaders can only reach about 2/3 of today's comprehensive technical basis. In general, cities in China, East Asia, Europe and North America have relatively strong technological foundations, as do some cities in the Middle East. But Africa, India and Latin America are lagging behind other countries, especially in installing sensor layers, which require substantial capital investment.
We use the checklists of current smart applications to assess the progress of each city. Liquidity has always been the primary task in most cities, but the number of applications that have the largest number of applications in general - London, Losangeles, New York, Seoul, Shenzhen and Singapore - has been expanded to a number of fields. Some cities have not yet applied some of the most potential applications to solve some of their priority problems.
Smart cities have changed the economics of infrastructure, creating space for partnerships and private sector participation
Smart city technology helps cities benefit from their assets, whether they have extensive legacy systems or start from scratch. There is no need to invest in physical assets and maintenance, but intelligent technology can add new functions when upgrading core components.
Infrastructure investment once locked cities in capital intensive and long-term plans. Now, with the proper combination of traditional architecture and intelligent solutions, they can respond to changes in demand more dynamically. If population growth is soaring in remote areas, it may take years to increase the new subway or bus lines and the subsequent expansion of the car group. By contrast, private on-demand minibus services can be put into operation quickly.
Urban governments need not be the sole sponsors and operators of various services and infrastructure systems. Although most of the applications we review will be implemented by the public sector, most of the initial investment may come from the private sector (Table 2). Public financing may only target public products that must be provided by the government. In addition, more than half of the initial investments required by the public sector will yield positive financial returns, which opens the door to partnerships.
The addition of more participants will have a positive impact as it increases the creativity of the available data for application. When the private sector of innovation emerges in an orderly manner, the role of the government may include regulation, mobilization of key players, provision of subsidies or change of purchase decisions. Instead of adopting a master plan approach, some cities positioned themselves as ecosystems, creating alliances or even physical collaboration spaces.
Some cities are beginning to make changes with their inherent advantages, such as wealth, density and existing high-tech industries. But even where these elements are lacking, you can make a difference by means of vision, good management, the willingness to break the routine, and the unremitting commitment to meet the needs of the residents. The private sector still has much room to play, and everyone should be empowered to shape the future of the city they call home.